Federal laws protect US workers from various forms of discrimination and harassment. These federal discrimination laws apply to all phases of employment, from the list of jobs to the interview process and demobilization. The Commission for Equal Opportunities in Employment (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, EEOC) enforces these laws by investigating complaints and grievances of employees. Then an overview of federal laws on discrimination, organized by type, with links to more detailed resources is provided.
See section in employment Discrimination FindLaw, and even the How to file charges of discrimination with the EEOC, for more information.
The federal anti-discrimination law known as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (or just “Title VII”) prohibits employers from discriminating qualifying based on race, skin color or features associated with a particular race. This law also covers employees of harassment by managers or other employees because of their race or skin color. Note that labor practices that apply equally to everyone can be discriminatory if they have a negative impact on particular racial group.
Gender discrimination (Sex)
Similarly, Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on gender (also known as “sex discrimination”). This also covers the unfair treatment following the partnership between the individual and an organization of gender, transgender, or (in some cases) homosexuality. Examples of gender discrimination include refusal to hire women, lack of advancement opportunities for women, or the marginalization of transgender employees.
The Law Against Age Discrimination in Employment (Age Discrimination in Employment Act, ADEA) protects workers age 40 and over unfair treatment and in turn prohibits discrimination based on age in matters pertaining to benefits and retirement. For example, employers may not amount to an older employee most qualified and favor a younger employee less qualified.
In many cases, Title VII also prohibits discrimination against employees because of their religious beliefs. This protection includes people who do not belong to an organized religious group, but they do have strong ethical or moral beliefs. As well as other types of discrimination to employees receiving differential treatment simply relate to a person belonging to a particular religious group is also protected.
Another federal law known as the Law Against Discrimination Pregnancy (Pregnancy Discrimination Act, PDA) prohibits discriminatory treatment of women due to pregnancy or childbirth, or conditions related to pregnancy or childbirth. For example, a woman usually does not get a promotion because of her pregnancy, even if it is the most qualified person for promotion. In addition, the Americans with Disabilities Act (Americans with Disabilities Act, ADA) and the Law on Family and Medical Leave protect the rights of a woman to have reasonable accommodations or related to pregnancy or childbirth licenses.
The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination and protects opportunities for people with disabilities (or those who are considered to have a disability). The ADA also requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for employees with a disability, such as access to the workplace for people with disabilities or other options that do not represent an unreasonable burden for the company or other employees.
Discrimination in Respect of Equal Pay and Compensation
The Equal Pay Act prohibits discrimination in employment based on gender, which states that men and women should receive equal pay for doing the same job. The Equal Pay Act of Lilly Ledbetter had extended the deadline for filing claims women. In addition, Title VII, the ADEA and the ADA also require equal pay without prejudice of race, religion or other protected characteristics.
Sexual harassment includes unwelcome sexual advances, offensive sexual remarks and observations that are not sexual but are offensive with respect to a person’s gender. Title VII prohibits sexual harassment, which is considered a form of gender discrimination. It also prohibits harassment “quid pro quo” (which translates as “something for something”), which is a promise of employment in exchange for the acceptance of certain behaviors advances or benefits stalker.
Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on the country or region of origin, ethnicity or other characteristics that may be associated with a particular national origin. This includes the very fact appear to have certain ethnic backgrounds. In addition, Control Act and Immigration Reform (Immigration Reform and Control Act, IRCA) makes it illegal to discriminate based on citizenship or immigration status of a person.
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination
Genetic testing is a new area of law and active protections under Title VII of the Law on Genetic Information Nondiscrimination (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, GINA). GINA prohibits the use of genetic information when making employment decisions. For example, a company may not dismiss a person because a blood test reveals that has a high probability of developing terminal cancer. In addition to information regarding genetic testing, the GINA law also applies to family history and whether the employee (or applicant) has applied for a genetic test.
Getting Legal Assistance with Labor Rights Issue
Employees have many rights at work established by both federal and state laws. If you believe your rights have been violated in the employment context, the best for their interests may contact a lawyer specializing in labor law, who will explain your options and protect your legal rights.